It is well known that the inexperienced surgeon can make several mistakes during surgeries in his learning period, so simulation is key to increase his learning curve, since it allows him to practice in a safe environment where he will not cause harm to third parties, besides receiving indications and feedback during the process. This way you will be able to reach a better level, with better results in practice during a real surgical scenario.
REVIEW COVID 19 IMPACT ON OPHTHALMIC DIAGNOSIS
Derrick AC Dabian,
Anamaria Leguizamon Stevenson,
Rey-Rodríguez Diana V
Objective: To describe the perception of risk of contagion and use of personal protection elements (PPE) in Colombian ophthalmological medical personnel, in face-to-face ophthalmological care and by teleconsultation during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methodology: Descriptive study based on self-report through the completion of a questionnaire that inquires about the contagion of health personnel, the use of Personal Protection Elements (PPE) during ophthalmological care and teleconsultation in the pandemic.
Results: 253 participants filled out the survey, of the total number of respondents, 91.7% (232) have received face-to-face care during the pandemic. 3.2% (8) have been confirmed cases of COVID-19. All respondents diagnosed with COVID-19 used full PPE and only 0.8% (2) consulted patients also diagnosed with COVID-19. The most frequent problems with the use of PPE were fogging of the glasses 83.4% (211), skin lesions 58.5% (148), headache 50.2% (127), dyspnea 32.8% (83) and nausea 9.9% (25), difficulty with glasses to perform slit lamp examination 49.4% (125) and eye fundus 34.4% (87) due to fogging. 44.7% (113) have performed teleophthalmology more frequently in subspecialties.
Conclusions: Although health personnel use PPE, there is a risk of contagion during face-to-face ophthalmological care. Likewise, there are frequent drawbacks such as the fogging of the PPE, which makes it difficult to assess with the slit lamp and fundus. The use of teleophthalmology reduces the risk of contagion in adults with comorbidities.
REVIEW ON PHACO SURGERY
Andrea Armería-Díaz de León,
Cristhian B Camera-Miranda,
Richard D Tirado-Aguilar,
How to cite this article:
León AA, Pierdant-Pérez M, Camera-Miranda CB, Tirado-Aguilar RD, Esparza-Villalpando V. Formulas for Intraocular lens Calculation in Phacorefractive Surgery of Patients with high Myopia. Which is the most Accurate? Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Literature. 2023; 97 (2E):40-54.
Introduction: Myopia is the most common ocular condition worldwide. Various methods exist for correcting high myopia, and our focus lies on refractive extraction of the crystalline lens with intraocular lens implantation (IOL). The IOL calculation should be as accurate as possible, therefore, a systematic review was performed to compare the error in the prediction of postoperative refraction among different formulas.
Objective: To carry out an evaluation of the literature found in the main electronic databases, where the results of phacorefractive surgery in patients with high myopia are described based on the predictive error of the formulas used.
Methods: Search for information in specialized electronic information sources: PubMed, Trip Database, Cochrane Library and Science Direct. Meta-analysis of the MAE (mean absolute error) and MNE (mean numerical error) results of the selected articles was performed to estimate which formula is the most accurate for calculating the intraocular lens in eyes with high myopia.
Results: 10 articles were selected that met the eligibility and quality criteria for the systematic review, of which 7 articles were used to perform the meta-analysis of single means of MAE and 6 articles for the meta-analysis of single means of MNE, the Barrett formula Universal II obtained the lowest global values of predictive error in both meta-analyses.
Conclusions: The Barrett formula, as it obtains the most predictable results, is considered the standard formula for intraocular lens calculation in patients with high myopia.
How to cite this article:
Cea F, Vargas-Aro B, Marín-Cornuy M, Opazo A, Aguila-Torres P. Bacterial Etiology of Eye Infections and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Acinetobacter Spp.: A Review. 2023; 97 (2E):55-60.
Purpose: This work aims to inform about the role of Acinetobacter spp. in ocular infections highlighting the microbial multi-resistance, based on the scientific evidence of a decade.
Methods: A bibliographic review was carried out based on different electronic databases such as: Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Sciences with emphasis on ocular pathologiescaused by bacteria of the Acinetobacter genus, their treatment and antibiotic resistance.
Results: 24 articles from indexed journals were included in the databases from January 2012 to January 2021 that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Conclusions: It is advisable to detect the etiological agent and perform antimicrobial susceptibility tests, since they are the basis for an effective treatment, also helping to reduce the future appearance of multi-resistant strains. According to the information collected on pharmacological therapy, the use of fluoroquinolones has good activity against Acinetobacter, proving to be the drug that presented the highest susceptibility efficacy against this pathogen. Despite the good response to the management of ocular infections, it is necessary to carry out more controlled and randomized studies in this to search for new antibacterial therapies.
José Alberto Reche-Sainz,
Sara Estefanía Hernández-Almeida,
How to cite this article:
Ruiz-Arranz C, Reche-Sainz JA, Hernández-Almeida SE, Calleja-García C, Ferro-Osuna M. Irreversible and Bilateral Optic Nerve Neuropathy Induced by Oral Ingestion of an Industrial Solvent. 2023; 97 (2E):61-65.
Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations and evolution of a patient with an acute intoxication due to the ingestion of paint thinner.
Observations: A 35-year-old man was assisted for a picture of agitation and disorientation. He had consumed a mixture of alcohol, diazepam, and marijuana for fun, and had drunk an indeterminate amount of paint thinner containing methanol and toluene. A very severe metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap and hypokalemia was observed, which required corrective measures of the electrolyte balance. Visual acuity was greatly decreased bilaterally to light perception, and he had mild optic disc edema that evolved to total optic atrophy, without visual improvement.
Conclusions and importance of the case: In acute intoxications by methanol and toluene, both may produce severe psychoactive symptoms and metabolic acidosis. Hypokalemia with muscle weakness is characteristic of toluene, while methanol produces severe and progressive bilateral acute optic neuropathies.
Kamalul Khusus Khairil-Ridzwan,
Hui Di Khor,
Shuaibah Abdul Ghani,
Purpose: Graphite pencils rarely cause ocular injury. However, the available data is limited. We aimed to identify the demographic data, clinical manifestations, presenting visual acuities and final visual outcomes in children with ocular injuries caused by graphite pencils.
Methods: A retrospective case series was conducted of children who had ocular trauma due to graphite pencils and were treated at Sabah Women and Children Hospital, Malaysia, from May 2015 to April 2018. The information about age, gender, presenting visual acuity, site and severity of injury, and treatment received were documented for each case. The final visual acuity at six-month post trauma was recorded.
Results: Eight boys were recruited. The mean age was 8.4 years, and ranged from 5 to 10 years old. All had unilateral ocular involvement. The left eye was affected in 62.5% of the patients. The injuries occurred both at home and in schools, with equal distribution of closed and open globe injuries. 75.0% had injuries that involved the conjunctival, corneal, and scleral tissues and the remaining 25.0% had injuries to the deeper structures including the iris, lens and vitreous. A presenting visual acuity worse than 6/12 (20/40) was documented in 62.5% of the patients. and 37.5% had a final visual acuity 6/12 (20/40) or worse, mainly due to corneal scars.
Conclusions: Injuries caused by graphite pencils mainly affected boys aged from five to 10 years. The majority of the boys had injuries to the anterior segment structures, and 62.5% had final visual acuities of 6/9 (20/30) and better. These injuries are essentially preventable.