Revista Mexicana de Oftalmología

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VOLUME 97 , ISSUE 3S ( Mayo-Junio, 2023 ) > List of Articles

ARTÍCULO ORIGINAL

Errores refractivos de estudiantes (12-15 años) del noroeste de México

Emiliano Teran, Efraín Romo-García, Martín H Félix-Medina, Carlos Martínez-Gaytán, Rosalía Ramirez-Jaimes, Héctor Santiago

Keywords : Miopía, Hipermetropía, Astigmatismo, Errores refractivos, Epidemiología

Citation Information : Teran E, Romo-García E, Félix-Medina MH, Martínez-Gaytán C, Ramirez-Jaimes R, Santiago H. Errores refractivos de estudiantes (12-15 años) del noroeste de México. 2023; 97 (3S):73-79.

DOI: 10.5005/rmo-11013-0047

License: CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Published Online: 20-01-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; Sociedad Mexicana de Oftalmología.


Abstract

Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio es evaluar el error refractivo y las disfunciones visuales de los estudiantes que asisten al sistema educativo básico (12-15 años) del estado de Sinaloa, México. Métodos: Un total de 901 (451 mujeres y 450 hombres) estudiantes del sistema escolar básico de Sinaloa participaron en el estudio de 2020 a 2021. Optometristas y estudiantes clínicos del Programa de Optometría de la Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa realizaron las pruebas. Las pruebas incluyeron agudeza visual y retinoscopía estática. Utilizamos un agente ciclopléjico para aquellos con una agudeza visual lejana igual o inferior a 20/40 según el protocolo RESC. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron una alta prevalencia de errores refractivos no corregidos. La miopía, definida como un error de refracción ≤ -0,50 D, tuvo una prevalencia de 24,7 (IC 95%: 21,5— 27,5) La hipermetropía, definida como un error de refracción ≥ +2,00 D, tuvo una prevalencia de 2,04% (IC 95%: 1,14 - 3.19) y el astigmatismo, definido como un error refractivo con un cilindro ≥ 0,75 D, tuvo una prevalencia del 19,8% (IC 95%: 16,9-22,5). No encontramos un efecto significativo del sexo sobre la agudeza visual. Conclusion: Nuestros resultados son consistentes con una alta prevalencia de miopía reportada en niños a nivel mundial y en las regiones del norte de México. Los resultados sugieren que los niños que asisten al sistema educativo básico deben realizarse un examen oftalmológico optométrico.


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